About the New Emissions Regulations
About the New Emissions Regulations
New emissions regulations which commenced in January 2011 affect materials handling equipment used in ports, terminals and heavy industry in the EU and North America. Here's how.
Tier 4i / Stage IIIB
Tier 4i (interim) and Stage IIIB are North American and European Union (EU) emissions regulations.
- Tier 4i is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulations for off-highway diesel engines in North America.
- Stage IIIB is the equivalent emissions regulations for the EU members.
How does this affect Big Trucks?
From January 2011, all diesel powered equipment with power ratings of between 174 and 751 hp (130-560 kW) supplied within the above regions will be affected by these regulations. This means, for example, that all Hyster Big Trucks with lifting capacities above 16 tonnes (at 1200mm), including container handlers and reachstackers, can be provided with new engines and emissions management technologies.
The regulations require diesel engines to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) exhaust emissions by 90% and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) exhaust emissions by 45% compared with the current Tier 3 and Stage IIIA emissions standards.
How to achieve lower emissions levels
Achieving such low levels of exhaust emissions demands major investment in engine technology and involves the addition of new systems such as Particulate Filter after treatment. Hyster, for example, has worked with leading engine manufacturer Cummins to apply new engine technologies to its range of Big Trucks and is now the first Big Truck manufacturer with this technology.
- The Advanced Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system used by Cummins combines today's approach with high-pressure common-rail fuel injection and electronically controlled air and fuel management. The cooled EGR system enables clean combustion and results in a reduction in NOx emissions to the levels required by the legislation.
- Particulate Matter (PM) is collected in a Diesel Particulate Filter and then oxidized by passive and or active regeneration in an exhaust after treatment system, in order to meet the requirements of the new legislation.
- Tier 4i / Stage IIIB also requires that crankcase emissions, also known as blowby gasses, be eliminated. To achieve this, Cummins engines incorporate a highly efficient coalescing filter which returns the oil to the crankcase and provides the added benefit of removing oil mist and tiny oil droplets, ensuring that the engine and powertrain remain cleaner than at Tier 3.
Delivering low lifetime costs
These changes do have their advantages. For example, with the Cummins Tier 4i / Stage IIIB engines, Hyster has demonstrated improved fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3 / Stage IIIA. Productivity has been enhanced, thanks to faster engine response, enabling Hyster equipment to work cleaner and quieter than ever before with reduced CO2 emissions, helping users to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the truck.
In addition to the Cummins technologies applied to Hyster Big Trucks, Hyster has introduced various performance optimisation techniques to help reduce the total fuel consumption even further. The upgrades for example include a key-switch in the operator compartment, enabling the selection of different power modes with the opportunity to achieve a further 15% fuel saving.
2012 and beyond
Looking ahead, there are more regulations to follow and from January 2012, smaller trucks will be affected within the 75-hp to 173-hp (56 - 129 kW) power category. Hyster is now also working towards 2014 and 2015 when there will be further steps to reduce emissions even further.
Ports, terminals and heavy industry do not have to change their existing equipment to meet the regulations, however, all new machine purchases in the EU and North America must comply.
As a global brand, Hyster will still be offering Tier 3 versions of its equipment in regions outside of the EU and North America.